The English Teacher

Teaching Vocabulary with Literature:
The Scarlet Letter

The student assignment below illlustrates one way that vocabulary can be taught through literature. I have tried a number of methods. For several years I taught vocabulary to 11th grade Honors English students from a vocabulary book. They were to learn the definitions for and how to spell five words per day. At the end of the week, they were given a test on twenty-five words. Sometimes I went back to a previous week. When the words totaled about 250, I gave a test going back to the first weeks and found that they had forgotten some of them. The unit became more frustrating when I asked the students to use the words in a sentence rather than just write the dictionary definitions. They didn't know what part of speech they were and the 'shadings of meanings' eluded them.

I found that teaching vocabulary from the book they were reading, if the book had a sufficiently challenging vocabulary, gave the students some awareness of the shadings of meanings rather than simply the basic dictionary definition.

One can see from the assignment below [to look up unknown vocabulary words in the dictionary], that some of the dictionary definitions would enhance understanding of the book, and others would not. It seemed to me that some words needed further study, and perhaps a class discussion to clarify them.

How much time to devote to vocabulary has been the question for many English teachers. In my opinion, the teaching of vocabulary is quite important and a task that can not be done effectively in just one class and at one grade level. Inasmuch as other language arts skills need to be taught in our classes too, vocabulary instruction should be carried on by all language arts teachers, and hopefully by teachers of other subjects such as history and science.

Return to: Strategies forTeaching OR return to: Teaching Literature



1. THRONG: (PG. 55) a great number of persons crowded 
2. EDIFICE: (PG. 55) a large, usually impressive building.
3. UTOPIA: (PG. 55) a place or state of political or social
   perfection.  Comes from a novel by Sir Thomas Moore 
   about a perfect society.
4. ALLOT: (PG. 55) to divide or distribute in shares.
5. SEASONABLE: (PG. 55) timely or opportune.
6. SEPULCHRES: (PG. 55) a burial vault built of rock or 
7. PONDEROUS: (PG. 55) weighty or clumsy.
8. CONGENIAL: (PG. 56) pleasant, friendly.
9. INAUSPICIOUS: (PG. 56) not prosperous.
10. PORTAL: (PG. 56) a doorway of imposing appearance.


11. PHYSIOGNOMIES: (PG. 57) the facial features held 
      to show qualities of mind or character by their 
      configuration or expression.
12. AUGURED: (PG. 57) foretold.
13. BETOKENED: (PG. 57) given evidence of.
14. TRIBUNAL: (PG. 57) a court of forum of justice.
15. INFERENCE: (PG. 57) the act of passing from one 
      proposition, statement, or judgment considered 
      as true to another whose truth is believed to 
      follow from that of the former.
16. INDUBITABLY: (PG. 57) unquestionably.
17. ANTINOMIAN: (PG. 57) one who rejects a socially 
      established morality.
18. HETERODOX: (PG. 57) holding unorthodox opinions
       or doctrines.
19. SCOURGED: (PG. 57) to subject to severe criticism 
       or satire.
20. FIREWATER: (PG. 57) strong alcoholic beverage.
21. MAGISTRATE: (PG. 57) a local official exercising
       administrative and often judicial functions.
22. GALLOWS: (PG. 57) the punishment of hanging.
23. VENERABLE: (PG. 58) made sacred especially by 
       religious or historical association.
24. MEAGRE: (PG. 58) lacking desirable qualities; meager.
25. TRANSGRESSOR: (PG. 58) violator.
26. SCAFFOLD: (PG. 58) a platform on which a criminal 
       is executed.
27. INFAMY: (PG. 58) evil reputation brought about by 
       something grossly criminal, shocking, or brutal.
28. IMPROPRIETY: (PG. 58) the quality or state of 
      being improper.
29. FARTHINGALE: (PG. 58) a support worn in the 
      16th century beneath a skirt to expand it at 
      the hip line.
30. FIBRE: (PG. 58) basic toughness.
31. ROTUNDITY: (PG. 58) rounded.
32. BEHOOF: (PG.59) advantage, profit.
33. MALEFACTRESSES: (PG. 59) a person who 
       violates the law or does evil.
34. TROW:  (PG. 59) believe.
35. AUTUMAL: (PG. 59) a period of maturity or 
     incipient decline.
36. BAGGAGE: (PG. 59) a worthless or contemptible 
     woman; prostitute.
37. HEATHENISH: (PG. 59) barbarous.
38. BEADLE: (PG. 60) a minor parish official whose 
     duties include ushering and preserving order at 
     services and sometimes civil functions.
39. ABASHED: (PG. 60) to destroy the self-confidence of.
40. SUMPTUARY: (PG. 60) designed to regulate habits 
      on moral or religious grounds.
41. GENTILITY: (PG. 60) the members of the upper class.
42. EVANESCENT: (PG. 61) tending to vanish like vapor.
43. IGNOMINY: (PG. 61) disgraceful or dishonorable
     conduct, quality, or action.
44. BRAZEN: (PG. 61) marked by contemptuous 
45. HUSSY: (PG. 61) a saucy or mischievous girl.
46. MERIDIAN: (PG. 62) midday; noon.
47. INIQUITY: (PG. 62) wickedness.
48. VISAGE: (PG. 62) appearance.
49. SPURN: (PG. 63) stumble.
50. PILLORY: (PG. 65) a means to expose one to 
     public scorn and humility.
51. FLAGRANT: extremely or purposefully 
     conspicuous usually because of uncommon 
     objectionable or evil.
52. MIEN: appearance; aspect.
53. VIED: exchanged in rivalry.
54. TAINTED: contaminated mark or influence.
55. CONTUMELY: rude language or treatment arising 
     from haughtiness and contempt.
56. COUNTENANCES: looks; expressions.
57. MERRIMENT: (PG. 64) lighthearted gaiety or fun 
58. PRETERNATURAL: exceeding what is natural 
     or regular.
59. HEWN: strictly conformed.
60. PHANTASMAGORIC:  a scene that constantly changes.
61. REMONSTRANCE: (PG. 65) objection.
62. CLOISTER: an area within a monastery or convent 
     to which the religious are normally restricted.
63. ETYMOLOGIST: studies word derivation.
64. DEMEANOR: behavior toward others; outward 


65. FURROWS: (PG. 67) wrinkles.
66. HETEROGENEOUS: (PG. 67) different in kind.
67. ABATE: (PG. 67) put an end to.
68. WRITHING: (PG. 67) to twist in pain; to suffer keenly.
70. SOJOURN: (PG. 68) a temporary stay.
71. INIQUITY: (PG. 68) wickedness.
72. MARRY: (PG. 68) to express amused or surprised 
73. EXPOUND: (PG. 68) to explain in careful and 
     elaborate detail.
74. PERADVENTURE: (PG. 68) perhaps.
75. BETWIXT: (PG. 70) between.
76. HALBERDS: (PG. 70) a weapon consisting typically 
     of a battle ax and pike mounted on a handle about 
     6 feet long.
77. TUNIC: (PG. 70) a hip-length or longer blouse or 
78. SAGACITY: (PG. 70) of keen mind:  shrewd.
79. MIEN: (PG. 70)
80. OBSTINACY: (PG. 71) fixed and unyielding; stubborn. 
81. ALBEIT: (PG. 71) although.
82. FERVOR: (PG. 72) intensity of feeling or expression.
83. LURID: (PG. 72) gruesome; sensational.
84. GARB:  (PG. 66) clothing.
85. IGNOMINOUS:  (PG. 69) shameful.


86. SAGAMORES: (PG. 76) a subordinate chief of the 
    Algonquian Indians of the north Atlantic coast.
87. AMENABLE: (PG. 76) willing to yield or submit:  
88. PEREMPTORY: (PG. 76) leaving no opportunity for 
    denial or refusal.
89. ALCHEMY: (PG. 76) a power or process of 
    transforming something common into something precious.
90. AVENGE: (PG. 77) to exact satisfaction for a wrong 
   by punishing the wrongdoer.
91. INQUEST: (PG. 80) inquiry, investigation.
92. AUGHT: (PG. 80) nothing.
93. PARAMOUR: (PG. 80) an illicit lover.
94. WOTTEST: (PG. 81) to have knowledge of or to know.


95. VIVIFY: (PG. 83) to endure with life or renew life: 
96. CLAUSE: (PG. 83) a separate section of a discourse 
     or writing.
97. ASSIMILATE: (PG. 83) to absorb into the cultural 
     tradition of a population or group.
98. TINGE: (PG. 83) an affective or modifying property 
     or influence: touch.
99. UNCONGENIAL: (PG. 83) unfriendly.
100.  THATCHED: (PG. 84) a house used as a sheltering 
     cover made of a plant material.
101. FAIN: (PG. 85) rather.
102. PROGENITORS: (PG.85) an ancestor in the direct 
    line: forefather.
103. PLEBEIAN: (PG. 86) one of the common people.
104. EMOLUMENT: (PG. 86) advantage.
105. COMMISERATION (PG. 86) to feel or express 
      sympathy: condole.
106. CONTUMACIOUSLY: (PG. 90) stubbornly 
     disobedient: rebellious.
107. TALISMAN: (PG. 90) something producing 
      apparently magical or miraculous effects.
108.EFFICACY: (PG. 91) effective as a means of remedy.
109. RUSSET: (PG. 92) a coarse brownish homespun cloth.
110. IMBUED: (PG. 92) inspired as with feelings, 
      opinions, etc.
111. MUTABILITY: (PG. 93) subject to change.
112.  EPOCH: (PG. 93) a point in time marked by the 
    beginning of anew development or state of things.
113. REGIMEN: (PG. 93) to organize.
114. CAPRICE; (PG. 94) a sudden, impulsive 
     change: whim.
115. INFANTILE: (PG. 95) characteristic of infancy 
    or infants: babyish.
116. SMOTE: (PG. 97) having striked something.
117. DEARTH: (PG. 97) scarcity, lack, or famine.
118. GESTICULATION: (PG. 99) expression through 
119. LABYRINTH: (PG. 100) any intricate or perplexing 
     set of difficulties: maze.
120. AMENABLE: (PG. 93) agreeable.
121. NURTURE: (PG. 96) care for; raise up.
122. ENMITY: (PG. 97) established hatred.
123. PATERNITY: (PG. 100) father.


124. LUDICROUS: (PG. 101) amusing or laughable 
    through obvious absurdity, incongruity, 
    exaggeration, or eccentricity.
125. EMINENCE: (PG. 102) position of prominence or 
126. PRISTINE: (PG. 102) uncorrupt by civilization.
127. INTRINSIC: (PG. 102) originating or situated within 
    the body or part acted on.
     128.IMPERIOUS: (PG. 102) commanding; dominant.
129. AKIN: (PG. 102) similar.
130. TUNIC: (PG. 102) a hip-length or longer blouse 
     or jacket.
131. WAN: (PG. 102) pale or sickly.
132. PALLID: (PG. 102) deficient in color: dull.
133. DAUNTLESS: (PG. 103) fearless, undaunted.
134. EXTANT: (PG. 103) not destroyed or lost.
135. CABALISTIC: (PG. 104) esoteric doctrine or 
     mysterious art.
136. CAPER: (PG. 104) a gay, bounding leap.
137. FLANKED: (PG. 104) to be situated on the side:  
138. FORSOOTH: (PG. 107) indeed.
139. EMBOWED: (PG. 105) arched.
140. FOLIO: (PG. 105) a book of the largest size.
141. TOME: (PG. 105) a volume forming part of a larger 
142. GILDED: (PG. 105) to overlay with or as if with a 
    thin covering of gold.
143. MAIL: (PG. 106) armor made of medal links or 
     sometimes plates.
144. BURNISHED: (PG. 106) polished.
145. PANOPLY: (PG. 106) full suit of armor.
146.  MUSTER: (PG. 106) formal military inspection.
147. EXIGENCIES: (PG. 106) a state of affairs that 
     makes urgent demands.
148. PHYSIOGNOMY: (PG. 106) facial features held to 
    show quality of mind or 
        character by their configuration or expression.
149. BREADTH: (PG. 106) something of full width.
150. VISTA: (PG. 107) a distant view through or an 
     avenue or pathway.
151. RELINQUISH: (PG. 107) leave behind.
152. SUBSISTENCE: (PG. 107) real being:  existence.
153. ANNALS: (PG. 107) historical records:  chronicles.


154. EXPATIATING: (PG. 108) enlarging in discourse or 
155. ANTIQUATE: (PG. 108) obsolete.
156. UNFEIGNEDLY: (PG.108) not pretending.
157. BEHEST: (PG. 108) an earnest request.
158. BENEVOLENCE: (PG. 109) desiring to do good 
     to others.
159. BEDIZEN: (PG. 109) to dress n a gaudy or 
     vulgar manner.
160. ALBEIT: (PG. 111) although or even if.
161. WARILY: (PG. 111) cautiously.
162. PIOUS: (PG. 111) of or pertaining to religious
163. IMBIBES: (PG. 111) to take or receive into the 
164. AMISS: (PG. 111) improper.
165. INDEFEASIBLE: (PG. 112) not to be annulled or 
     made void.
166. EMACIATED: (PG. 113) to make very thin, as to lack 
     of nutrition or to disease.
167. MOUNTEBANK: (PG. 114) any charlatan or quack..
168. BOON: (PG. 114) a favor sought.
169. ADDUCED: (PG. 114) to bring forward as in 
     argument or as evidence.
170. VEHEMENCE: (PG. 115) forceful or violent.
171. UNOBTRUSTIVE: (PG. 115) not conspicuous.
172. CHARGER: (PG. 108) plate or platter.


173. APPELLATION: (PG. 117) an identifying name 
    or title.
174. CONTAGION: (PG. 117) the spread as of an idea, 
     emotion, etc.
175. CHIRURGICAL: (PG. 118) surgical.
176. INTRICACIES: (PG. 118) having many interrelated 
     parts or facets: intricate.
177. COUNTENANCE: (PG. 120) to extend approval or 
     toleration of.
178. PARISHONER: (PG.120) a member or inhabitant 
     of a parish.
179. PROPOUND: (PG. 120) to offer up for discussion 
     or consideration.
180. DELVE: (PG. 122) to make careful or detailed 
    search for information.
181. SAGACITY: (PG. 123) the quality of keen and 
    farsighted penetration and judgment.
182. TUMULT: (PG. 123) uproar and confusion:  
    commotion, riot.
183. ERUDITION: (PG. 124) extensive knowledge 
    acquired chiefly from books.
184. COMMODIOUSNESS: (PG. 125) comfortable 
     or conveniently spacious:  roomy.
185. INCANTATIONS: (PG. 125) a use of spells or 
     verbal charms spoken or sung as a part of a 
     ritual of magic.
186. BLACK ART: (PG. 125) made practiced by or 
     as if by conjurers and witches.
187. CONJURER: (PG. 125) someone who calls up 
    spirits or ghosts:  magicians.
188. GUISE: (PG. 126) manner or fashion.
189. SANCTITY: (PG. 126) Godliness or sacredness.
190. EMISSARY: (PG. 126) messenger.
191. DIABOLIC: (PG. 126) devilish.


192. SEXTON: (PG. 127) an official charged with 
    maintaining church property.
193. DEEM: (PG. 128) to believe or judge.
194. ASPIRATION: (PG. 128) strong desire, longing, 
     or ambition:  goal.
195. GHASTLY: (PG. 127) terrifyingly horrible to 
     the senses:  frightening.
196. STEALTHILY: (PG. 128) slow, deliberate, and 
     secret in action or character.
197. INIMICAL: (PG. 128) having the disposition of 
     an enemy:  hostile.
198. ASKANCE: (PG. 129) with a side-glance:  obliquely.
199. PERFORCE: (PG. 129) by force of circumstances.
200. SOLACE: (PG. 130) alleviation of grief or anxiety.
201. BRETHREN: (PG. 130) fellow members of a 
    profession, society, or sect; 
plural of brothers.
202. PROPAGATE: (PG. 130) publicize.
203. ABASEMENT: (PG. 130) to lower in rank, office, 
    prestige, or esteem.
204. SOOTH: (PG. 131) truth, reality.
205. ARMORIAL: (PG. 131) of, relating to, or bearing 
     heraldic arms.
206. DECOROUSLY: (PG. 131) marked by propriety and 
    good taste:  correct
207. IMP: (PG. 131) a small demon:  fiend.
208. MIRTH: (PG. 132) gladness or gaiety as shown 
     by or accompanied with 
209. PALLIATE: (PG. 134) to cover by excuses or 
210. ASSENTED: (PG. 135) to agree to something.
211. SOMNIFEROUS: (PG. 135) hypnotic.
212. VESTMENT: (PG. 135) an outer garment; a robe 
    of ceremony or office.
213. PEITY: (PG. 128) reverence to God.


214. MALICE: (PG. 136) desire to see another suffer.
215. LATENT: (PG. 136) present and capable of 
     becoming though not now visible or active:  dormant.
216.BALKED: (PG. 136) to stop short and refuse to 
217.ODIOUS: (PG. 137) exciting or deserving hatred 
    or repugnance.   
218.MACHINATION: (PG. 138) a scheming or crafty 
    action or artful design intended to accomplish 
    some usually evil end.
219. LORE: (PG. 138) traditional knowledge or belief.
220. ETHEREALIZED: (PG. 138) celestially.
221. ATTESTATION: (PG. 138) to be proof of:  manifest.
222. AVOWAL: (PG. 141) an open declaration or 
223. IMPALPABLE (PG. 142) incapable of being 
     felt by touch.
224. VENERATION: (PG. 139) commanding respect 
     because of great age or associated dignity.


225. SOMNAMBULISM: (PG. 143) sleepwalking.
226. DANK: (PG. 143) cold and damp.
227. EXPIATION: (PG. 144) to atone for; to make 
     amends for.
228. DEFUNCT: (PG. 147) dead or inactive.
229. SCANTLY: (PG. 147) scarcely enough.
230. JUTTING: (PG. 149) to extend beyond the main 
231. ARCHFIEND: (PG. 151) a chief fiend:  Satan.
232. SCURRILOUS: (PG. 153) grossly and offensively 
233. GRISLY: (PG. 146) inspiring horror or intense fear.
234. TUMULT: (PG. 147) a turbulent uprising:  riot.
235. AWRY: (PG. 147) out of right or hoped-for cause.
236. FIRMAMENT: (PG. 150) the vault or arch of the 
    sky:  heavens.
237. MALEVOLENCE: (PG. 151) arising from intense or 
     vicious ill will, spite, or hatred.
238. ERUDITE: (PG. 152) possessing or displaying 
     erudition; learned.
239. REPLETE; (PG. 152) fully or abundantly provided 
     or filled:  complete.


240. PAUPER: (PG. 155) a very poor person.
241. GIBE: (PG. 155) to tease with taunting words.
242. MEED: (PG. 156) a fitting return or recompense.
243. DESPOTS: (PG. 156) a ruler with absolute power 
     and authority.
244. FOLIAGE: (PG. 157) a cluster of leaves, flowers, 
     and branches.
245. SEMBLANCE: (PG. 158) outward and often 
     specious appearance or show.
246. IMBIBED: (PG. 159) to receive into the mind and 
247. OBVIATED: (PG. 160) to see beforehand and 
    dispose of; making unnecessary.
248. ETHEREAL: (PG. 160) celestial, heavenly.
249. CLEW: (PG. 160) clue.
250. CHASM: (PG. 160) a marked division, separation, 
     or difference.
251. LUNACY: (PG. 160) wild foolishness; insanity.
252. ACQUIESCING: (PG. 161) to accept or comply 
    tacitly or passively.
253. STAFF: (PG. 161) a long stick carried in 
    the hand for support in walking.


254. WIRY: (PG. 163) lean and strong.
255. BEHEST: (PG. 164) an earnest request.
256. RANKLE: (PG. 164) to cause persistent keen 
     irritation or bitter resentment.
257. PROPINQUITY: (PG. 165) nearness in place 
     or time.
258. USURP: (PG. 165) to seize and hold (a position, 
     power, etc.) by force or without legal right.
259. RETRIBUTION: (PG. 167) punishment given in 
    return for some wrong committed; judgment.


260.  SERE: (PG. 168) withered.
261. VERDURE: (PG. 168) condition of health and 
262. SEDULOUS: (PG. 168) diligent in application 
    or pursuit.
263. HORNBOOK: (PG. 171) a child's reading 
      book consisting of a sheet of parchment or paper 
      protected by a sheet of transparent horn.
264. PETULANT: (PG. 172) insolent or rude in speech 
     or behavior.
265. PRECOCITY: (PG. 172) exhibiting mature qualities 
     at an unusually early age.
266. ACRID: (PG. 172) deeply or violently bitter.
267. ENIGMA: (PG. 173) something hard to understand 
     or explain:  mystery.
268. PROPENSITY: (PG. 173) an intense and often 
     urgent natural inclination.
269. BENEFICENCE: (PG. 173) an office to which the 
     revenue from an endowment is attached:  fief.
270. VIVACITY: (PG. 173) being lively in temper or 
    conduct:  sprightly.
271. TALISMAN: (PG. 173) something producing 
     apparently magical or miraculous effects.
272. ASPERITY: (PG. 174) roughness of manner 
     or of temper:  harshness.
273. UPBRAIDED: (PG. 169) criticized.


274. SCINTILLATING: (PG. 176) to be brilliant
     or keen, as in talent.
275. VIVACITY: (PG. 176) being lively in temper or 
     conduct:  sprightly.
276. SCROFULA: (PG. 176) a form of tuberculosis.
277. LOQUACITY: (PG. 178) exceedingly talkative.
278. STREAMLET: (PG. 178) a small stream.
279. PRATTLE: (PG. 178) to talk in a foolish or 
     simpleminded way.
280. CADENCE: (PG. 179) rhythmic sequence or 
     flow of sounds in language.


281. SPECTRE: (PG. 181) something that haunts or 
     perturbs the mind; specter.
282. MALEVOLENT: (PG. 183) having, showing, or 
     arising from intense often vicious ill will, spite, 
     or hatred.
283. CONTIGUITY: (PG. 183) the quality or state of next 
     or near in time or sequence.
284. MISANTHROPY: (PG. 184) a hatred or distrust of 
285. INVIGORATED: (PG. 184) to give life and 
     energy to; animate.
286. RECOIL: (PG. 185) to fall back under pressure.
287. CONSECRATION: (PG. 186) the act of making or 
    declaring sacred.
288. SATIATING: (PG. 186) to satisfy fully.
289. SENTINEL: (PG. 188) one that watches or guards.
290. BUDY: (PG. 188) to support or sustain.
291. TARRY: (PG. 188) stay, sojourn.


292. ESTRANGED: (PG. 189) to alienate the 
    affections of.
293. COLLOQUY: (PG. 189) a conversation 
    especially formal one.
294. AMISS: (PG. 190) out of proper order:  wrong.
295. TRAMMELLED: (PG. 190) something that restricts 
     activity or free movement:  hindrance.
296. MACHINATIONS: (PG. 190) a crafty, intricate, 
     or secret plot, usually intended to achieve 
     an evil purpose.
297. BREACH: (PG. 191) a violation as of a law or 
298. CITADEL: (PG. 191) a stronghold.
299. SOLACE: (PG. 191) comfort in sorrow or 
    distress; consolation.
300. HEATHEN: (PG. 193) an irreligious, uncivilized, 
     or unenlightened person.
301. SUBJUGATED: (PG. 193) to bring under 
    dominion:  conquer.
302. DENIZENS: (PG. 194) an inhabitant:  resident.
303. CHOLERIC: (PG. 194) bad tempered; irritable.


304. ACCOSTING: (PG. 196) address, greeting.
305. PRATTLE: (PG. 196) to utter meaningless 
     sounds suggestive of the chatter of children:  
306. INURED: (PG. 198) accustomed to accept 
     something undesirable.
307. MOLLIFIED: (PG. 198) soothed in temper or 
308. GESTICULATING: (PG. 198) making gestures 
     especially when speaking.
309. PRETERNATURAL: (PG. 199) existing outside 
     of nature:  abnormal
310. ALLOY: (PG. 200) to reduce the purity of by mixing
     with something debasing.


311. VICISSITUDE: (PG. 202) unexpectedly 
    changing circumstances.
312. ANTIQUITY: (PG. 202) the quality of being
313. SOLACE: (PG. 202) comfort in sorrow.
314. INTROSPECTION: (PG. 203) the examination 
     of one's own mental and emotional state.
315. IRREFRAGABLE: (PG. 203) not to be 
     disputed or contested.
316. UNCOUTH: (PG. 204) awkward of clumsy.
317. WEATHERCOCK: (PG. 204) a weather 
     vane in the shape of a rooster.
318. MUTABILITY: (PG. 204) being liable or 
     subject to change.
319. COMPORT: (PG. 205) to conduct or behave.
320. OBEISANCE: (PG. 205) a bodily gesture, as a 
     bow, expressing respect.
321. DEVOUT:  (PG. 206) sincere or hearty.
322. BARTER: (PG. 207) to trade by exchanging 
     one commodity for another.
323. ENSHRINED: (PG. 207) preserved or 
    cherished as sacred.
324. GRANDAM: (PG. 206) an old woman:  grandmother.
325. AUGHT: (PG. 206) at all.
326. PITHY: (PG. 206) having substance and point.
327. GILD: (PG. 206) to give an attractive but often 
     deceptive appearance to.
328. TARRY: (PG. 207) stay, sojourn.
329. POTENTATE: (PG. 209) one who wields 
     controlling power.
330. STUPEFIED: (PG. 209) astonished.
331. MALIGNANT: (PG. 209) disposed to cause 
     harm deliberately.
332. GRATUITOUS: (PG. 209) without apparent 
     reason or justification.
333. DELL: (PG. 210) a secluded hollow or small 
     valley usually covered with 
trees or turf.
334. REQUITE: (PG. 211) to make return for: repay.
335. STEED: (PG. 212) a spirited horse for state 
    or war.


336. BETIMES: (PG. 212) at times:  occasionally.
337. PLEBIAN: (PG. 212) one of the common people.
338. QUAFF: (PG. 213) to drink (a beverage) deeply.
339. WORMWOOD: (PG. 213) something bitter and 
    grievous:  bitterness.
340. LEES: (PG. 214) the settling of liquor during 
     fermentation and aging:  dregs.
341. EFFERVESCE: (PG. 214) to show liveliness 
     or exhilaration.
342. MIRTH: (PG. 216) gladness or gaiety as shown 
     by or accompanied with laughter.
343. QUARTERSTAFF: (PG. 217) a long stout staff 
     formerly used as a weapon and wielded with 
     one hand in the middle and the other between 
     the middle and the end.
344. BUCKLER: (PG. 217) a shield worn on the left arm.
345. BROADSWORD: (PG. 217) a sword with a broad 
     blade for cutting rather than thrusting.
346. SCRUPLE: (PG. 218) an ethical consideration or 
     principle that inhabits action.
347. QUAFFING: (PG. 218) dinking (a beverage) deeply.
348. TEMPESTOUS: (PG. 219) turbulent, stormy.
349. PROBITY: (PG. 219) adherence to the highest 
     principles and ideals:  uprightness.
350. UNBENIGNANTLY: (PG. 219) acting in a way that 
     is not favorable or beneficial.
351. ANIMADVERSION: (PG. 219) adverse and 
     typically ill-natured or unfair 
352. GALLIARD: (PG. 219) gay, lively.
353. BERTH: (PG. 220) safe distance.


354. CLARION: (PG. 221) a medieval trumpet 
     with clear shrill tones.
355. MERCENARY: (PG. 222) one that serves merely 
     for wages.
356. MORION: (PG. 111) high-crested helmet with 
     no visor.
357. SOBRIETY: (PG. 223) the quality or state of 
    being sober.
358. MORBID: (PG. 224) abnormally susceptible to or 
    characterized by gloomy or unwholesome feelings.
359. NECROMANCY: (PG. 225) magic, sorcery.
360. PATHOS: (PG. 227) an emotion of sympathetic pity.
361. GRADATIONS: (PG. 227) a series forming successive 
362. ORB: (PG. 228) something circular:  circle, orbit.
363. INDEFATIGABEL: (PG. 228) incapable of being 
     fatigued:  untiring.
364. REQUITAL: (PG. 228) something given in return, 
     compensation, or retaliation.
365. SWARTHY: (PG. 229) being of a dark color, 
     complexion, or cast.
366. SMITE: (PG. 229) to attack or afflict suddenly and 
367. UNSCRUPULOUS: (PG. 230) unprincipled.
368. SURMISE: (PG. 231) to imagine or infer on slight 
369. STIGMA: (PG. 231) a mark of shame or discredit:  


370. ORACLES: (PG. 231) a person (as a priest) 
     through whom a deity is 
        believed to speak.
371. DEITY: (PG. 232) Supreme Being:  God.
372. LORE: (PG. 232) something that is taught:  lesson.
373. WROUGHT: (PG. 233) deeply stirred:  excited.
374. APOTHEOSIS: (PG. 233) elevation to divine status.
375. INTIMATIONS: (PG. 235) the act of making known:  
376. NETHER: (PG. 235) situated down or below:  lower.


377. CONJECTURE: (PG. 240) a conclusion deduced by 
     surmise or guesswork.
378. NECROMANCER: (PG. 240) a person who is 
    believed to communicate with the spirits of the 
    dead for purposes of magically revealing the 
    future of influencing the course of events.
379. PORTENT: (PG. 240) something that foreshadows 
    a coming event:  omen.
380. NUGATORY: (PG. 241) having no force:  
381. BEQUEATHED: (PG. 243) to hand down:  
382. RECLUSE: (PG. 244) marked by withdrawal 
    from society:  solitary.
383. PENITENCE: (PG. 244) regret for sin or 
384. ESCUTCHEON: (PG. 245) a protective or 
     ornamental shield.
385. SABLE: (PG. 245) the color black:  dark.
386. GULES: (PG. 245) the heraldic color red.